Chapter 9 Negotiating Tenure Conflict in Indigenous Villages of Ratanakiri Province
Chapter 9 is based on research conducted from February to June 2008 by the participants of the Cooperation Committee of Cambodia (CCC) Analyzing Development Issues (ADI) community course with the ADI and Indigenous Community Support Organization (ICSO) teams. This research employs a participatory action research (PAR) method in an attempt to mobilize the people of three conﬂ icting communities to solve their own problems regarding land issues. The paper provides in-depth detail of the land dispute between Pa Or, Leu Horn, and Leu Khuon with the objective to trace the historical roots of the conﬂ ict, to examine the consequences for the indigenous villages involved, and to explore possible reasons why the indigenous communities were unable to resolve the problem. The research results identiﬁ ed many factors that led to the failure of inclusive conﬂ ict resolution including polarization of intentions between local authorities and different claims to land possession.
Chapter 17 is based on research conducted from March to July 2007 by the participants of the Cooperation Committee for Cambodia (CCC) Analyzing Development Issues (ADI) community course with the ADI and 3SPN (3 Rivers Protection Network) teams. Upon realizing that the use of illegal ﬁ shing techniques was endemic to the area, this paper describes a participatory action research (PAR) method to mobilize community members to take action against the destructive practices. The research focuses on (1) how can villages develop and implement community action plans to reduce destructive practices? And (2) how can villagers effectively coordinate with commune council and government ofﬁ cials to implement their plans? The research results conclude that villagers need to overcome fear, powerlessness, and confusion to act effectively, which requires ongoing support from each other as well as from outside stakeholder. The results also include the possibility of scaling up the approach within core areas of NGO programming.